Volume 9, Issue 6

Assess the Awareness of COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers in King Abdullah Medical City, Saudi Arabia
Original Research
Background: COVID-19 is highly contagious, So, the best solution for controlling the pandemic is the simultaneous application of preventive methods while still developing novel treatments. Healthcare workers have a critical role in lowering morbidity and mortality. Preventing nosocomial infections and protecting healthcare workers posed great challenges to the healthcare system during the initial COVID-19 outbreak. Healthcare workers are at a high risk of infection from the patients if they do not have ample knowledge and awareness about the disease or if they do not take adequate precautionary measures. Aim of the study: The aim of the current study is to assess the knowledge and perception about COVID-19 among healthcare workers in King Abdullah Medical City in Makkah. Subjects and Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional design was adopted. The study sample consisted of 183 healthcare workers working at King Abdullah Medical City in Makkah. Data have been collected by self-administered questionnaire which was consisted of three parts through convenience sampling method. Results: The mean score of workers’ knowledges about COVID-19 was good, and the mean score of their perception was also good as well. Factors associated with healthcare workers’ knowledge about COVID-19 include the nationality of participants. Conclusion: In-service education and persistent training about COVID-19 should be continued. Future studies should be conducted to provide more evidence about the factors, which are significantly associated with healthcare workers’ knowledge, and perception about COVID-19.
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2021, 9(6), 216-221. DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-9-6-5
Pub. Date: December 20, 2021
COVID-19 Stigma and Nurses’ Professional Quality of Life, Self-esteem and Performance
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has risen to the top of the public's concentration. Epidemics generate societal stigma. Contagion stimulates numerous preconceptions, views, emotional states, labels, stereotypes, and stigmas. Emotions play a crucial role in these situations, affecting planned or fact-based decisions. Today amid COVID-19, nurses in a challenge for caring for patients. There is a conflict between the professional obligation due by nurses to their patients and the contagion-induced tacit attitudes. A fear begins during outbreaks as a result of concern about an unidentified reason disease with a potentially lethal end, particularly when infection control procedures such as quarantine and strict isolation are executed to safeguard the public. Methods: The exploratory correlational design was used to achieve the objectives of the present study. This study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals (ZUH’s), Egypt. A stratified proportionate random sample (n=326) from different categories of nurses, and a Jury committee (n=7). 4 Questionnaires format and 4 opinionnaire sheets were utilized for data collection. Results: 56.1% of study subjects have a high level of social stigma. there were statistically significant differences between COVID-19 social stigma and nurses’ performance (task dimension at p-value 0.004, Contextual dimension at p-value 0.0001 and Counterproductive dimension at p-value 0.0001), nurses’ self-esteem at p-value 0.001, and nurses' professional quality of life (satisfaction at p-value 0.002, nurses' burnout at p -value 0.0001, and nurses' fatigue at p -value 0.0001). Conclusion and recommendations: nurses have a high level of stigma. COVID-19 stigma was associated with nurses’ performance, self-esteem, and professional quality of life. Nurses’ self-esteem and professional quality of life were associated with nurses’ performance. Stigma predicts performance (contextual dimension), Self-esteem predicts performance (task and counterproductive dimension), satisfaction predicts performance dimensions, burnout predicts task, contextual dimensions, and stigma, and finally, fatigue predicts counterproductive dimension. Thus, strategies and measures should be taken, to promote nurses’ quality of life, self-esteem, and performance; keep nurses away from fatigue, burnout, and stigmas; enforce positive public attitudes toward nurses; continuing education and training sessions; and support.
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2021, 9(6), 206-215. DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-9-6-4
Pub. Date: December 12, 2021
A Cross Sectional Study to Identify the Factors Influence Implementation of Changes in Healthcare Organization
Original Research
Background: Healthcare organizations are undergoing unusual changes. Implementation of changes may affect the performance of employees during and after change. Organizational changes in health care are more likely to succeed when health care professionals can influence the change, feel prepared for the change, and recognize the value of the change, including perceiving the benefit of the change for patients. Assessing the implementation of organizational changes will help to identify positive areas and shortcomings that require for the future improvement. Aim of the study: This study aims to identify the factors that influence changes in healthcare organization and evaluating the employees’ perceptions concerning to organizational changes. Subjects and Methods: A Cross-Sectional design. Undertaken at specialized hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Sample collected from 400 healthcare workers by using a survey instrument which was designed based on the initial interviews carried out from the experts in the health care organization. Results: The highest rated dimensions among implementation of organizational changes are Individual personality, Team collaboration, Team communication, openness to change, goals and objectives, organizational architecture, overall satisfaction, and effective leadership respectively. The result proved the relationship between implementation of organizational changes and staff positions, professional role, and work experience. Nurses and physician have found the highest mean score compared to allied health workers. Conclusion: This study found the strength and areas of improvement on implementation of organizational changes in the healthcare settings. Individual personality, good team collaboration and communication, employee openness to change, employee known their goals and objectives, good leadership and overall satisfaction can contribute the implementation of organizational changes in the healthcare settings. This study recommends the health care leaders to evaluate area of concerns to implement changes in the organization.
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2021, 9(6), 200-205. DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-9-6-3
Pub. Date: December 03, 2021
Glasgow-Blatchford versus Rockall Scoring Systems for Predicting Outcomes of Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Original Research
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common emergency and potentially fatal health problem that associated with high mortality and morbidity. Gastrointestinal endoscopy can identify the cause of bleeding and remains the cornerstone of diagnosis and therapy in gastrointestinal bleeding. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare between the Glasgow-Blatchford score and Rockall score in predicting the clinical outcomes of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding during hospitalization. Study design: Retrospective observational cohort research design was used to conduct this study. Setting: This study was conducted in the medicine department 1 and 2 at medical hospital affiliated to Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. Subjects: Purposive sample of 95 adult patients who were admitted to the previously mentioned settings from October 2020 to March 2021 were included in the study. Data collection tools: (1) Patients' Clinical Outcomes Assessment Questionnaire, (2) The Glasgow-Blatchford Scale, (3) The pre-endoscopic Rockall Score. Results: Regarding re-bleeding prediction, (AUC for GBS= 0.573, RS 0.534). As for mortality prediction, GBS was similar to RS (AUC 0.754 and 0.744 respectively). Regarding need for blood transfusion (AUC for GBS= 0.868 and 0.691 for RS), prediction of need for endoscopic intervention revealed that GBS was superior to RS (AUC 0.785 and 0.675 respectively). In terms of length of hospital stay, GBS and RS were quietly equivalent (AUC 0.654 and 0.657 respectively). Conclusion: The study concluded that there was no statistically significant difference between the Glasgow Blatchford Score and pre-endoscopic Rockall Score in predicting accuracy of clinical outcomes for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Recommendations: It is recommended that the pre-endoscopic Glasgow Blatchford Score and Rockall Score are considered useful tools that can be safely used to predict clinical outcomes of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding.
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2021, 9(6), 191-199. DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-9-6-2
Pub. Date: November 15, 2021
Application of Health Belief Model on COVID Vaccine Acceptance among Employees University in Namas City
Original Research
Background: Awareness of the COVID vaccine and positive beliefs can help in the reduction of coronavirus morbidity and mortality. Aim: The study aimed to examine the effect of application of health belief model COVID vaccine acceptance among university employees in Namas City. Materials and Methods: quasi-experimental research design. The study was conducted in all faculties of Bisha University at Namas district in south KSA. A convenience sample of Saudi employees taking only one dose and refusal received vaccination against COVID at the University of Bisha, Al-Namas branch. The study was conducted from the beginning of February 2021 to the end of 2021 covering 6 months. Three tools were used to conduct this study: a self-administrated questionnaire first tool,about sociodemographic and COVID vaccine knowledge, second tool was HBM scale and third tool. Three tools questionnaire to assess design making toward vaccination against COVID-19 and what are barrier and hesitancy to receiving the COVID-19 vaccine after implementation educational program. Results: Most of the university employees acceptance of COVID vaccine and improved their knowledge and significantly improved HBM constructs compared with the scores before the program (P<0.001). Conclusion: After implementation of the nursing educational program about COVID vaccine for Saudi employees, knowledge improved significantly, and there were significant improvements in perceived severity, barriers, benefits, and the cues to action scores after the program compared with the scores before program (P≤0.001). Recommendations: Propagation of educational programs based on HBM on COVID vaccine to various age groups would help raise public awareness about COVID vaccine and change to positive beliefs for reduction coronavirus morbidity and mortality.
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2021, 9(6), 182-190. DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-9-6-1
Pub. Date: October 22, 2021